Author Topic: Bosančica – Bosnian Cyrillic  (Read 3140 times)

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Offline Krstjanin

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Bosančica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« on: August 26, 2011, 08:23:21 PM »
Bosnian or Western Cyrillic is primarily a Bosnian variation of common Cyrillic script which was also used in Dubrovnik, Dalmatia and in some Croatian territories where it received some alternative names like “Croatian Cyrillic” or “ Arvatica”.  In 1530. it was named “bosniensibus litteris” by the monk Kružić and from the same time we have the earliest saved version of Croatian Poljica statute which was written with “ arvacko pismo”.  This script was also sometimes mentioned as Serbian but very rarely.  For, example, Matija Divković wrote his “Nauk krstjanski” in “Slavic language spoken in Bosnia” but with “Serbian letters”.



After the start of Ottoman occupation of Bosnia, Bosnian Cyrillic went into two different directions, in two different cultural spheres. It was mostly reserved for Bosnian Franciscans but it also had its place among ****** nobles of domestic Bosnian Slavic origin. Bosnian Franciscan monk Ivan Franjo Jukić wrote this: “From the oldest times up to year 1813, Bosniaks used the script and letters created by Saint Cyril.”-“This Bosnian – Catholic alphabet – Cyrillic – is somewhat different from that one used by the Serbs for their church books”. The term “Bosnian alphabet” was also used by Marijan Lišnjić in 1672.

These are the letters with most variations in Bosnian / Croatian / Western Cyrillic

Totally specific letters in this alphabet:



Forms in different areas:
« Last Edit: January 09, 2013, 01:27:49 PM by Svevlad »


Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #1 on: August 26, 2011, 08:26:23 PM »
Although this script was never standardized it was used with small (and some big) variations for about 800 years.
Bosančica was used in medieval period for religious texts, charters and also it was carved into Bosnian gravestones. First known Bosnian charter – the one from Kulin ban – was written in 1189. using the Bosnian Cyrillic.



From the church raised by Kulin ban:


Charter of  ban Stjepan/Stepan ( Steven) in 1323:



I picked some examples to show the usage of the Bosnian Cyrillic on medieval gravestones.





(Its hard to find online pics of gravestones with visible words).


 

Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #2 on: August 26, 2011, 08:27:26 PM »
This is from “Hval the Christian”, he was a member of the Bosnian church.


Bosnian Gospel of Kopitar



Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #3 on: August 26, 2011, 08:36:55 PM »
Some pages from the work of Ćiro Truhelka:







Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #4 on: August 26, 2011, 08:40:13 PM »


Offline Prelja

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #5 on: August 26, 2011, 08:50:02 PM »
Thanks for very interesting thread useful for my linguistic studies.  ;)

Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #6 on: August 26, 2011, 08:54:32 PM »
Quote
Thanks for very interesting thread useful for my linguistic studies.

Thank you for reading.  ;)
And welcome back. ;)

Offline Sokil

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #7 on: August 26, 2011, 10:07:22 PM »
Very interesting. I guess the writing under your avatar is also written in Bosančica?

Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #8 on: August 26, 2011, 11:38:34 PM »
yeah, I found net writable version but it does not work anymore. :( I will have to do something about that. :D

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #9 on: November 09, 2011, 01:12:25 AM »
I wouldn't call it Cyrillic, because it is Glagolic. Glagolic is the script of Saints Cyril and Methodius, applied to Pre-Christian Slavic languages in central, southern and eastern Europe. Cyrillic was the brainchild of one of Cyril's students in Bulgaria, decades later. Therefore Glagolic is older and cannot be considered Cyrillic. This is my research and thought, I am open to contradictions to that if one has any.
« Last Edit: November 09, 2011, 08:31:28 AM by Perun »

Online Svevlad

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #10 on: July 06, 2012, 04:23:18 AM »

Online Svevlad

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Re: Bosan?ica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #11 on: August 17, 2012, 05:13:40 PM »
Bosnian Cyrillic at the Franciscan monastery in Kraljeva Sutjeska;



The Cyrillic part reads "Sutěska... Naše stolno město".

Offline Ингва

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Re: Bosančica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #12 on: August 13, 2013, 02:32:02 PM »
The term "bosančica" is made up and given to that Cyrillic variation by Ćiro Truhelka (1865–1942).
Some of the oldest names for that style are stara Srbija and srpska slova.

For example :
4. 7. 1611.
a book from Fojnica's library carrying a name :

Sto čudesa, aliti Znamenja blažene i slavne Bogorodice, Divice Marije. Ova čudesa i znamenja ispisa, i privede iz dijačkoga jezika u jezik slovinski bogoljubni bogoslovac poštovani otac fra Matije Divković iz Jelašak iz provincije Bosanske priimenkom Arđentine. Poče se štampati četvrti dan mjeseca Srpnja, u Mnetcije na ilijadu i šesat, i jedinonaest po porođenju Isusovu. Po Petru Bartanu kon crkve, koja se zove sveta Marija Formaža.


Milost i dopuštenije svijetle i plemenite gospode mnetačke. Plemenita gospoda poglavice od vijeća od deset, koji su se pod ovu potpisali budući čuli, i razumeli o Gospode koja su vrhu studija od Padove, kako je njim dumica skazala, koji su na ovo određeni. Poštovani otac iziskalac, i prigledalac mnetački, i Gn. Ivan priimenkom Maravelja, skroviti pisac od vijeća plemenite Gospode mnetačke ova dva izuznaše, i vidješe da u knjigah, koje se zovu Nauk krstjanski pisan jezikom slovinskim slovi srpskimi fra Matije Bošnjanina. I u knjigah o zlamenja Gospina istoga fra Matije istijemi slovi (srpskim); i u isti jezik ne budući ni se nahodeći ništo protiva zakonom. I dostojno je da se štampa, zato dopuštujemo da se može štampati u ovomu gradu u Mnetcije.


Ja pop Nikola Franin priimenkom Nurijević protopop od svetoga Antonina u Mnetcije, i kanonik u svetome Petru od patrijarkata. Po naredbi poštovanoga otca kvižitura mnetačkoga, vidjeh i pregledah velepomnjino zlamenija blažene Gospe; koja zlamenija pripisao iz dijačkoga jezika u jezik slovinski, i slovi srpskimi fra Matije Divković iz Jelašak i iz provincije Bosne Arđentine.

Glasnik zemaljskog muzeja, 1901, god 13, kniga 2, str. 339 - 340





From another book of Fojnica's library :

Plač blažene divice Marije, koji plač ispisavši srpski, i istavivši mnoge stvari bogoslovac fra Matije Divković iz Jelašak, iz provinvije Bosne Arđentine prikaza svetomu oficiju inkvižicioni aliti iziskovana sveto oficije vidivši da je stvar velebogoljubna. Zato dopusti da se može štamati.

From the page 63:

Verši kako Abram po zapovjedi Božijoj hotijaše prikazati na posvetilište jedinago sina svoga Isaka. Koje verši ispisavši srpski i ispravivši mnoge stvari bogoslovac fra Matije Divković iz Jelišak iz provincije Bosne Arđentine.

Further on in the book :

Počinju razlike molitve velelepne, i korisne, koliko za redovnike, toliko za svojtovanje, Koje molitve skupi, i istumači iz dijačkoga jezika u bosanski jezik srpskimi slovi boni bogoslovac, fra Matije Divković iz Jelišak.

Glasnik zemaljskog muzeja, 1901, god 13, knjiga 2, str. 341-342




The oldest appellation of that cyrillic variant :

25th august 1364 in Dubrovnik
A "bosančica" note made by Serbian dijak Niko Bijelić.

Tisuštu trista i šestdeset i četiri, 25. d'n mĕseca augusta.
A se kako posla župan S[a]nko po svoj dohod'k od magariša kneza
Milšu Upornicu, a knez Milša posla junaka svoga imenem [.....], t[e]r mu
podaše vlastele dubrov'čci za dohod'k šestdeset perper' gotovĕh dinari. A tomu su svĕ[do]ci
Frančesko Baldela i Lorin Rico i Sofredo notar i Milša i ja Niko Bĕlić dijak srpski.

-Srpska kraljevska akademija, Spomenik XI, Spomenici srpski, Beograd 1892, str. 33.



"U izvorima, pak, zapadna ćirilica, osobito zapadni brzopis, naziva se i hrvatskim i bosanskim i srpskim pismom. Iako je naziv "srpski" za ćirilski rukopis stariji (dubrovački pisar Niko Bijelić potpisuje se na jednom dokumentu iz 1364. godine "dijak srpski"), ipak se naziv "bosanski" i "hrvatski" za ćirilsko pismo pojavljuju, koliko je dosad poznato, već u 16. stoljeću."
Tomislav Raukar - O problemu bosančice, prvi dio - historiografske kontraverze

"In sources, however, Western Cyrillic, especially the Western cursive script,  is called Croatian and Bosnian and Serbian alphabet.
Though the name "Serbian" for that Cyrillic writing is the oldest (Dubrovnik scribe Niko Bijelić signed on to a document from the yeard of 1364 as "dijak srpski"), the terms "Bosnian" and "Croatian" for Cyrillic script do appear, as we know so far, already from the 16th century." Tomislav Raukar - About the problem of bosančica, part one - historiographical controversies
« Last Edit: August 13, 2013, 02:42:25 PM by Ингва »

Offline Xekoslav

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Re: Bosančica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #13 on: August 13, 2013, 03:28:12 PM »
Ovo je vrlo zanimljivo, Ingva. Gotovo svaki izvor koji sam procitao o ovoj temi,  i južnoslavenski i neutralni, opisao je bosančicu kao jedinstveno hrvatsko pismo. Mislio sam da je ovo pitanje vec bilo odgovoreno i stvarno nije bilo rasprave. Ovo je prvi put kojeg vidim srpsku tvrdnju za bosancicu: P U redu je , barem dijelis s nama neke zanimljive informacije :).
« Last Edit: August 13, 2013, 03:33:00 PM by Xekoslav »

Offline Krstjanin

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Re: Bosančica – Bosnian Cyrillic
« Reply #14 on: August 13, 2013, 05:06:25 PM »
@ Ingva, thanks for the contribution. Exact name "bosančica" perhaps appeared in the 19th century but Bosnian designation (as you also noted) appeared a lot earlier. Further, sources you gave us show only elaboration of original Divkovics case which, you have to admit, is quite isolated case when it comes to Bosnia proper and a note from Serbian "dijak" from Dubrovnik (out of Bosnia). 

Quote
"U izvorima, pak, zapadna ćirilica, osobito zapadni brzopis, naziva se i hrvatskim i bosanskim i srpskim pismom. Iako je naziv "srpski" za ćirilski rukopis stariji (dubrovački pisar Niko Bijelić potpisuje se na jednom dokumentu iz 1364. godine "dijak srpski"), ipak se naziv "bosanski" i "hrvatski" za ćirilsko pismo pojavljuju, koliko je dosad poznato, već u 16. stoljeću."

Tomislav Raukar got it right, he just forgot to mention that distribution of Croatian and Bosnian name for the script follows political borders established in the early late medieval period. Where people might have identified with terms of "Croatia" and "Croats", the script they used was called Croatian. However, in Bosnia people called it by Bosnian name (besides Divković who is an exception).

Ivan Franjo Jukić also spoke about teh problem: 

"za što ne veli Divković , jezikom srpskim, kad kaže slovi srpskimi? Isti Divković, u kasnijem svom djelu “ Nauk karstjanski itd” veli : “ jezikom bosanskim  a slovi sarpskimi”. Čudo što Divković nije znao , da je on Srb, i da ne samo srpski piše, već i da govori! "

I wrote this in the opening post of the topic, the western cyrillic was never standardized but many people forget that the eastern (font) got its standardized shape only in the 19th century. So, people from all around former Yugoslavia wrote with different variants of Cyrillic (which they considered to be correct) and they called it with different names.


 

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